Mental Health Treatment

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which may demonstrate symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions and distorted thinking and behavior that can disrupt regular activities. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders refer to some categories of symptoms that do not fully meet the criteria for a specific disorder. 


Symptoms of schizophrenia are more commonly seen in early 20s for men, late 20s in women, and rarely in children.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia Spectrum

While schizophrenia could include a wide range of impairments there are some symptoms that are common to most schizophrenia spectrum patients.


Seeing and hearing visions and voices that don’t exist in reality. Schizophrenia patients encounter them as real things and real experiences.


False beliefs and paranoid behavior based on ideation that other people and things are aiming to harm or harass.

Disorganized Thinking

Incoherent thoughts, illogical reasoning leading to erroneous or sometimes harmful conclusions. 

Disorganized Speech

Incoherent sentences and unrelated speech patterns impairing common communication and social interactions.

Disorganized Behavior

Unpredictable behaviors such as excessive reactions or lack of reactions, unfocused actions, resistance to guidance.

Suicidal Ideation

Passive suicidal ideation such as wishing to die, and active suicidal ideation such as having intent to die could occur in schizophrenia patients.

Types of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

Schizophrenia disorders have been classified as spectrum disorders because they may show themselves in one way but change during the course of the illness.

Types of Other Psychotic Disorders

Causes of Schizophrenia

There is no one confirmed cause for schizophrenia however there could be a combination of factors that may contribute to developing these disorders.


Some schizophrenia disorders have been seen to run in families and while there is a belief that genetics could be the cause of this, it hasn’t been identified as such.

Environmental Factors

Prenatal and pregnancy complications, socioeconomic status, childhood trauma and several other environmental factors could become potential risks developing into any of these disorders.

Neurostructural Changes

Studies showing brain changes in schizophrenia patients are still recent, however changes such as reduction in temporal lobe size, decreased brain size, fluid filled ventricles are some observations leading to these conclusions.

Co-occurring Disorders

Studies have repeatedly shown that suffering from conditions such as anxiety, depression and dissociative disorders may contribute to developing schizophrenia and vice versa.

Schizophrenia Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing schizophrenia spectrum disorder or the other psychotic disorders are usually based on personal and family medical histories, MRI or FMRI brain scans, and observation of symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and speech patterns. A physical test including a blood test may be performed in the process of diagnosis.


While there is no cure for schizophrenia there are many effective treatment options that can greatly alleviate the symptoms and reduce the return of relapse episodes.


Medical treatment options may include prescription antipsychotic drugs, and alternative treatment options such as therapy contribute to learning self-care skills and strategies to cope with life’s challenges. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for building coping skills and Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) using brain games have been seen to be particularly effective against schizophrenia and related disorders. Family, group and community support can help patients from feeling isolated and encourage them to become active members of society.

If you or your loved one is experiencing any of the symptoms described here, please seek help.

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Alyssa Mueller


Alyssa Mueller is an Associate Clinical Social Worker. She holds a Master of Social Work with a concentration in Community Mental Health from California State University of Fullerton as well as a Bachelors of Arts in Communication Studies with an emphasis on intercultural and interpersonal communication from California State University of Long Beach. Compassion, empowerment and unconditional positive regard are the foundations of her clinical practice, Alyssa has a passion for helping others and her priority is to hold space for clients to feel heard, to feel safe and to find fulfillment and self-love on their recovery journey. Alyssa specializes in addiction treatment, self-esteem building, mindfulness practices, grief and loss, trauma informed care, and self-compassion as well as individual and family therapy. She has extensive experience working with high risk populations in various clinical settings such as partial hospitalization, intensive outpatient care, outpatient treatment, schools, and community outreach. Alyssa uses a client centered and holistic approach to address the client as a whole person in order to help them to feel empowered and facilitate their confidence and independence.

Charee Marquez

LMFT - Clinical Director

Charee has worked in the recovery field for 10 years.Charee is dedicated to supporting and inspiring clients to live a healthy lifestyle filled with meaning and purpose.Charee has extensive clinical experience within the recovery field in both inpatient and outpatient settings.She specializes in working with individuals and families affected by the disease of addiction however she has also clinical experience in assisting individuals,couples and families in working through a variety of concerns,including: depression,anxiety,relationship & communication issues,substance abuse,grief & loss,trauma, life transitions, and many others.Charee works with each client to specialize their treatment plan with what works best for the client in a compassionate and effective way. She emphasizes the strength of every individual client and fosters an environment of personal growth and internal healing from a mind, body and spiritual approach.Charee received her Bachelor of Arts from Seton Hall University, Majoring in Psychology and Minoring in Women and Gender Studies, in addition to her Masters in Marriage and Family Therapy from the University of Southern California.

Stephen Carmel

Founder & CEO

I began my journey to recovery back in 2011 when I moved to California from New York.Along wiht my recovery and beginning a new way of life,I began to develop a heart for others struffling with sobriety.My journey to California was filled with many trials and lessons learned, but most of all, personal growht.I truly believe i would not have found success if I didn’t come to California.I started CPR as a way to work with people in recovery on a daily basis and it evolved into something much more beautiful. I have also come to realize that my own personal happiness and recovery depends on being involved in the lives of people in recovery. Helping others recover is a cornerstone of many 12 step programs, as it is here. Giving back to those still suffering, is the only way not to lose what you have gained. It is the paradox that we live by every day.