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Understanding Dyspraxia: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment


Clinically Reviewed by: Charee Marquez, LMFT

What is Dyspraxia?

Dyspraxia, also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), is a condition that significantly impacts movement and coordination, affecting both large and smaller muscles. Historically, dyspraxia was referred to as ‘clumsy child syndrome’ due to the noticeable physical coordination challenges in children. This neurodevelopmental disorder can complicate a child’s ability to perform everyday tasks and acquire new skills, leading to challenges that other children may not face. Beyond physical difficulties, dyspraxia can affect cognitive skills, making learning and academic performance more complex. Occupational therapists and physical therapists play crucial roles in diagnosing and treating dyspraxia, helping children navigate the intricate process of developing coordination and improving their functional abilities. In this blog, we will describe the movement difficulties associated with dyspraxia, explore its impact on learning and mental health, and discuss how schools and therapists can support affected children.

What is Dyspraxia (Developmental Coordination Disorder)?

Dyspraxia, also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or developmental dyspraxia, is a neurological condition that affects physical coordination and motor skills. It manifests in difficulties with tasks requiring fine motor skills, such as writing or buttoning clothes, as well as gross motor skills, like running or jumping. People with dyspraxia may also struggle with balance, spatial awareness, and coordination. This condition can impact daily activities and academic performance, leading to challenges in organization and time management. Although dyspraxia does not affect intelligence, it can influence learning and social interactions, making early diagnosis and supportive interventions crucial for managing its effects.


What Causes Dyspraxia?

The exact cause of dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), is not fully understood. However, it is believed to result from a disruption in the way the brain processes information, leading to difficulties in coordinating physical movements. Several factors may contribute to the development of dyspraxia, including:

  1. Genetic Factors: There is evidence to suggest that dyspraxia can run in families, indicating a possible genetic component.

  2. Premature Birth: Children born prematurely, particularly those born before the 37th week of pregnancy, are at a higher risk of developing dyspraxia.

  3. Low Birth Weight: Babies with a low birth weight are more likely to have dyspraxia.

  4. Neurological Impairments: Issues with the development of the brain’s motor pathways may contribute to dyspraxia. These pathways are responsible for planning and executing movement.

  5. Environmental Factors: Although less clearly understood, environmental factors during pregnancy or early childhood, such as exposure to alcohol, drugs, or infections, may increase the risk of dyspraxia. Signs of dyspraxia can be noticeable from an early age.

While these factors may increase the likelihood of developing dyspraxia, the condition is typically diagnosed based on observed difficulties with motor coordination rather than a specific identifiable cause.


Can Dyspraxia Be Cured?

Dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), cannot be cured, but its symptoms can be managed effectively. A physical therapist can offer assistance in managing dyspraxia symptoms by helping with practical, everyday matters involving small motor skills and organizational skills. Early diagnosis and interventions such as occupational and physical therapy, educational support, and practical strategies can significantly improve motor skills and daily functioning. Speech therapy may also help if there are associated communication difficulties. With the right support from therapists, educators, and family, individuals with dyspraxia can lead successful and fulfilling lives despite the challenges.


Is Dyspraxia Hereditary?

Dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), may have a hereditary component, as it tends to run in families. Genetic factors are believed to play a significant role in its development, though the exact cause is not fully understood. Studies suggest that children with a family history of dyspraxia or related developmental disorders are at a higher risk of having the condition themselves. While genetics can contribute to the likelihood of developing dyspraxia, environmental factors and neurological development also play crucial roles in its manifestation.


Dyspraxia Prognosis

The prognosis for dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), varies depending on the severity and the support received. Early diagnosis and interventions, such as occupational and physical therapy, significantly improve motor skills and daily functioning. An occupational therapist plays a crucial role in evaluating and helping children with dyspraxia develop skills specific to daily activities at home and at school. Educational support and tailored learning strategies help individuals succeed academically. Although dyspraxia is a lifelong condition, many adults develop effective coping strategies and adapt well. With supportive environments and continued access to resources, individuals with dyspraxia can lead successful and fulfilling lives despite ongoing challenges with coordination and motor skills.


Types of Dyspraxia

Dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), can manifest in various forms, affecting different areas of motor and cognitive skills. Dyspraxia is used to describe movement difficulties that can occur due to various factors, including brain damage from a stroke or injury, often referred to as acquired dyspraxia. The types of dyspraxia include:

  1. Motor Dyspraxia: This type affects gross motor skills, leading to difficulties with large movements such as running, jumping, and maintaining balance. Individuals may struggle with activities that require coordination and physical control.

  2. Ideomotor Dyspraxia: This form impacts fine motor skills, making tasks like writing, buttoning clothes, and using utensils challenging. It involves difficulty in planning and executing single-step movements.

  3. Ideational Dyspraxia: This type affects the ability to plan and sequence complex movements involving multiple steps. Individuals may struggle with tasks that require a series of actions, such as making a bed or cooking a meal.

  4. Oromotor Dyspraxia (Verbal Dyspraxia): This form impacts the muscles used for speech, causing difficulties with articulation and pronunciation. It can affect the ability to coordinate the movements necessary for speaking clearly.

  5. Constructional Dyspraxia: This type involves difficulty understanding and creating spatial relationships, leading to problems with tasks such as drawing, assembling objects, or organizing space.


Effects of Dyspraxia on Motor Skills

Dyspraxia affects coordination and motor skills, leading to difficulties with tasks requiring fine and gross motor control, such as writing, buttoning clothes, and running. It is categorized under motor disorders within the broader category of neurodevelopmental disorders in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It can impact balance, spatial awareness, and organization. People with dyspraxia often face challenges in academic performance, daily activities, and social interactions. Speech difficulties may also occur. While dyspraxia does not affect intelligence, it can influence learning and self-esteem. Early diagnosis and supportive interventions are crucial for managing these effects and improving quality of life.


Risks of Dyspraxia

Dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), affects individuals in various ways:

  1. Motor Skills: Difficulties with fine motor skills (e.g., writing, buttoning clothes) and gross motor skills (e.g., running, jumping) are common. Individuals may also struggle with balance and coordination.

  2. Daily Activities: Tasks that require planning and sequencing, such as dressing, cooking, or organizing, can be challenging. This can impact independence and daily functioning.

  3. Academic Performance: Students with dyspraxia may have trouble with handwriting, organizing their work, and following instructions, which can affect their academic achievements.

  4. Social Interactions: Challenges in coordination and communication can lead to social difficulties, affecting relationships and social participation.

  5. Self-Esteem: Persistent difficulties and the need for additional support can impact self-esteem and confidence.

  6. Speech and Language: Oromotor dyspraxia can cause speech difficulties, making it hard to articulate words clearly and affecting communication.


Dyspraxia Prevalence

Dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), is a relatively common condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of school-aged children. Boys are more frequently diagnosed than girls, with a ratio of about 2:1. The prevalence may be underreported due to variability in diagnostic criteria and awareness among healthcare professionals and educators. Dyspraxia can persist into adulthood, though the exact prevalence in adults is less well-documented. Early identification and intervention are crucial, as they can significantly improve outcomes for individuals with dyspraxia. Increased awareness and understanding of the condition can help ensure that those affected receive the support and resources they need.


How Is Dyspraxia Diagnosed?

Dyspraxia is diagnosed through a comprehensive evaluation process that includes:

  1. Developmental History: A detailed review of the child’s developmental milestones and any observed motor difficulties.

  2. Clinical Observation: Assessment of motor skills, coordination, balance, and fine motor tasks by a healthcare professional.

  3. Standardized Tests: Use of standardized motor skills tests to measure specific difficulties in coordination and motor planning.

  4. Rule Out Other Conditions: Ensuring that motor issues are not caused by other medical or neurological conditions.

A multidisciplinary team, including pediatricians, occupational therapists, and sometimes psychologists, is often involved in the diagnosis to provide a thorough assessment.


Signs and Symptoms of Dyspraxia Affecting Fine Motor Skills

Signs and symptoms of dyspraxia include:

  1. Motor Skills: Difficulty with coordination, balance, fine motor tasks (writing, buttoning clothes), and gross motor activities (running, jumping).

  2. Daily Activities: Struggles with organizing tasks, dressing, and self-care.

  3. Academic Performance: Poor handwriting, trouble following instructions, and completing assignments.

  4. Social and Emotional: Difficulty in physical play, potential social isolation, frustration, and low self-esteem.

  5. Speech and Language: Problems with articulation and pronunciation.

  6. Other Signs: Sensitivity to sensory input and delayed motor milestone development.


How Do You Help a Loved One with Dyspraxia?

To help a loved one with dyspraxia:

  1. Seek Professional Support: Engage with occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech therapists for tailored interventions.

  2. Educational Support: Advocate for appropriate accommodations and support in school.

  3. Encourage Practice: Provide opportunities for practicing motor skills through fun and supportive activities.

  4. Use Assistive Tools: Utilize tools like special writing aids or organizational apps.

  5. Be Patient and Supportive: Offer encouragement, patience, and understanding to boost their confidence.

  6. Promote Independence: Help them develop routines and strategies for daily tasks.


Dyspraxia Treatment Options Including Occupational Therapy

Treatment options for dyspraxia include:

  1. Occupational Therapy: Helps improve fine motor skills and daily living activities.

  2. Physical Therapy: Enhances gross motor skills, coordination, and balance.

  3. Speech and Language Therapy: Assists with speech difficulties and communication skills.

  4. Educational Support: Provides tailored learning strategies and accommodations in school.

  5. Assistive Technology: Uses tools and devices to aid in writing, organization, and other tasks.

  6. Practical Strategies: Teaches methods for task sequencing and organization.

  7. Parent and Teacher Training: Educates caregivers and educators on how to support the individual effectively.

  8. Social Skills Training: Helps improve social interactions and build self-esteem.


Is dyspraxia linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders?

  • Yes, dyspraxia can co-occur with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD, dyslexia, and autism spectrum disorder. It’s important to consider a comprehensive assessment to address all potential co-existing conditions.


How does dyspraxia affect social interactions?

  • Dyspraxia can impact social interactions due to difficulties with coordination and communication. Children with dyspraxia may struggle with playing sports, participating in group activities, and understanding social cues, which can lead to social isolation and low self-esteem.


What role do genetics play in dyspraxia?

  • While the exact cause of dyspraxia is not fully understood, there is evidence to suggest a genetic component. Dyspraxia can run in families, indicating that genetic factors may contribute to its development.


How does dyspraxia affect adults?

  • Dyspraxia can persist into adulthood, affecting daily tasks, employment, and social interactions. Adults may face challenges with time management, organization, driving, and manual tasks. However, many adults develop effective coping strategies and can lead successful lives.


Are there specific activities or exercises that can help manage dyspraxia symptoms?

  • Yes, tailored activities and exercises can help manage dyspraxia symptoms. These may include balance and coordination exercises, hand-eye coordination tasks, and activities that improve fine motor skills, such as puzzles, crafts, and handwriting practice. Engaging in regular physical activity can also be beneficial.


Inpatient and Outpatient Treatment Options for Dyspraxia 

Inpatient Treatment Options:

  1. Specialized Rehabilitation Centers: Intensive therapy programs focusing on motor skills and daily living activities.

  2. Hospital Programs: Short-term stays for comprehensive assessments and therapy.

Outpatient Treatment Options:

  1. Occupational Therapy: Regular sessions to improve fine motor skills and daily tasks.

  2. Physical Therapy: Ongoing sessions to enhance gross motor skills and coordination.

  3. Speech and Language Therapy: Scheduled visits to address speech and communication issues.

  4. Educational Support Services: School-based interventions and accommodations.

  5. Community Programs: Local support groups and skill-building workshops.

  6. Home-Based Exercises: Therapy exercises and activities to practice at home.


Common Prescription Medications for Dyspraxia

There are no specific prescription medications for dyspraxia itself. However, medications may be prescribed to manage associated conditions such as ADHD or anxiety. Common medications include:

  1. Stimulants: Such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) for ADHD.

  2. Non-Stimulants: Such as atomoxetine (Strattera) for ADHD.

  3. Antidepressants: Such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for anxiety or depression.

Always consult a healthcare provider for appropriate treatment options.


Dosage Guidelines for Dyspraxia Prescription Medication

There are no specific prescription medications for dyspraxia itself. However, associated conditions like ADHD or anxiety may be treated with the following:

  1. Stimulants for ADHD:

    • Methylphenidate (Ritalin): Typically 5-60 mg per day, divided into 2-3 doses.

    • Amphetamine (Adderall): Typically 5-40 mg per day, divided into 1-2 doses.

  2. Non-Stimulants for ADHD:

    • Atomoxetine (Strattera): Typically 40-100 mg per day.

  3. Antidepressants for Anxiety:

    • Fluoxetine (Prozac): Typically 10-40 mg per day.

    • Sertraline (Zoloft): Typically 25-200 mg per day.


Does Insurance Cover Dyspraxia Treatment?

Insurance coverage for dyspraxia treatment varies by provider and policy. Generally, many insurance plans cover occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech therapy if prescribed by a healthcare professional. Educational support and assistive technology may not be covered. It’s essential to review your specific insurance plan and consult with your provider to understand the extent of coverage for dyspraxia-related treatments.


Common Insurance Plans Used for Addiction and Mental Health Treatment

Common insurance plans used for addiction and mental health treatment include:

  1. Private Health Insurance:

    • Blue Cross Blue Shield

    • Aetna

    • Cigna

    • UnitedHealthcare

    • Humana

  2. Government Programs:

    • Medicare

    • Medicaid

    • TRICARE (for military personnel and their families)

  3. Employer-Sponsored Health Plans:

    • Varies by employer but often includes major private insurers like those listed above.

  4. Marketplace Health Plans:

    • Available through the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

These plans typically offer varying levels of coverage for therapy, counseling, medication, and inpatient or outpatient treatment programs. Always check specific plan details for coverage information.


Is Dyspraxia Treatment Right for Me?

Determining if dyspraxia treatment is right for you involves assessing your challenges with motor skills, coordination, and daily activities. If you experience significant difficulties in these areas that impact your daily life, seeking a professional evaluation can help. Treatment, such as occupational or physical therapy, can improve skills and quality of life. Consulting with healthcare providers will help determine the most appropriate course of action based on your specific needs.



In conclusion, dyspraxia, or Developmental Coordination Disorder, is a multifaceted condition that presents significant challenges for affected children. It impacts both large and smaller muscles, leading to movement difficulties that affect everyday functions and learning processes. Recognizing dyspraxia as a mental disorder that affects cognitive skills is essential for providing the right support. Occupational therapists and physical therapists are vital in helping children develop coordination and improve their daily activities. Schools also play a critical role in offering tailored support to ensure that children with dyspraxia can succeed alongside their peers. Understanding the term dyspraxia and its implications allows for better diagnosis, intervention, and support, enabling children to overcome these challenges and reach their full potential.


Seeking Treatment? Our Mental Health Professionals Can Help!

At California Prime Recovery, as an in-network provider we work with most insurance plans, such as:

If you or a loved one are struggling with mental health challenges or substance abuse, reach out to California Prime Recovery today. Our team of compassionate professionals is here to support your journey towards lasting well-being. Give us a call at 866-208-2390.


Dyspraxia, also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects coordination and motor skills. It can impact a person’s ability to perform tasks requiring fine and gross motor skills, such as writing, tying shoelaces, and playing sports.
Diagnosis involves a comprehensive evaluation by healthcare professionals, including developmental history, clinical observation, standardized motor skills tests, and ruling out other conditions. A multidisciplinary team, often including pediatricians, occupational therapists, and physical therapists, is involved.
Symptoms include difficulty with coordination and balance, poor posture, trouble with fine motor tasks like writing or buttoning clothes, challenges in gross motor activities like running or jumping, and learning difficulties that affect academic performance.
Treatment options include occupational therapy to improve fine motor skills, physical therapy to enhance gross motor skills and coordination, speech and language therapy for speech difficulties, and educational support to aid academic performance. Assistive technology and practical strategies can also be beneficial.
Dyspraxia cannot be cured, but its symptoms can be managed effectively with early diagnosis and appropriate interventions. With the right support, individuals with dyspraxia can develop coping strategies and lead successful and fulfilling lives.

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