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Understanding Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): Types, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Clinically Reviewed by: Charee Marquez, LMFT

Understanding Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is essential for recognizing its impact on the lives of those affected by this severe form of premenstrual syndrome. PMDD, marked by profound emotional and physical symptoms, goes beyond the common premenstrual symptoms experienced by many. Its ties to fluctuations in hormone levels, reproductive hormones, and brain chemicals suggest an intricate link between the body’s normal hormonal changes and severe symptoms such as mood swings and depression. Women at childbearing age face an increased risk, especially if they have a health history of conditions like generalized anxiety disorder or bipolar disorder, which can intensify the mental health symptoms associated with PMDD. Understanding how PMDD is diagnosed and treated, acknowledging proven risk factors, and learning to control physical symptoms are crucial steps towards managing this disorder.

What is Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria?

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a severe and debilitating form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that affects a small percentage of menstruating women. It is characterized by extreme emotional and physical symptoms that disrupt daily life and function, typically in the week or two leading up to menstruation. These symptoms are much more intense than those experienced with common PMS and can include severe mood swings, depression, anxiety, irritability, and physical symptoms like bloating and joint pain. PMDD is believed to be linked to hormonal changes and possibly an abnormal response to these hormones. Effective treatments often involve a combination of lifestyle adjustments, medication, and psychological therapy.


What causes Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria?

The exact cause of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve several factors:

Hormonal Changes: PMDD symptoms correlate with the hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle. Although the levels of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are normal, women with PMDD may have an abnormal response to these hormonal changes.

Serotonin Levels: Serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, sleep, and appetite, may play a role in PMDD. Changes in serotonin levels can trigger symptoms like mood swings, depression, and anxiety. Women with PMDD might have unusual sensitivity to serotonin fluctuations.

Genetic Factors: There is evidence suggesting that PMDD may have a genetic component, as it appears to run in families. Women who have close relatives with PMDD or related mood disorders may be more likely to develop PMDD themselves.

Inflammatory Processes: Recent research suggests that inflammation could contribute to PMDD. Elevated inflammatory markers are found in some women with PMDD, indicating that inflammation might impact mood and other physiological functions in these individuals.

Psychological Factors: While psychological factors alone don’t cause PMDD, stress and emotional health can exacerbate symptoms. Women who have experienced trauma or have underlying mental health issues may also be more susceptible to developing PMDD.

Understanding these factors can help in managing and treating PMDD, though individual experiences can vary significantly.


Can Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria be Cured?

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) cannot be cured completely, but its symptoms can be effectively managed and controlled. Treatment strategies often involve a combination of lifestyle modifications, psychological therapy, and medications such as antidepressants or hormonal treatments. The goal of these treatments is to alleviate symptoms and significantly improve the quality of life for those affected. While PMDD is a chronic condition, with appropriate management, many women find their symptoms become much more manageable, allowing them to lead fuller, less disrupted lives.


Is Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Hereditary?

Yes, there is evidence to suggest that Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) may have a hereditary component. Studies have indicated that PMDD is more likely to occur in women who have a family history of the disorder or other related mood disorders. This suggests that genetic factors could play a role in the susceptibility to PMDD.

Research has identified possible genetic markers that might influence the regulation of serotonin and other neurotransmitters involved in mood regulation, which are also linked to PMDD. However, while genetics can increase the risk, they are just one part of a complex interaction involving hormonal, environmental, and psychological factors. Understanding these multiple factors is crucial for effectively managing and treating PMDD.


Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Prognosis

The prognosis for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) can vary widely among individuals, but with appropriate treatment and management strategies, many women find significant relief from their symptoms. Here are some key points regarding the prognosis for those dealing with PMDD:

  1. Responsiveness to Treatment: Many women with PMDD respond well to treatments such as medication (especially SSRIs), hormonal therapy, and lifestyle modifications. These treatments can effectively manage or significantly reduce symptoms for many, allowing them to maintain their daily routines and quality of life.
  2. Long-Term Management: PMDD is a chronic condition that may require long-term management. The severity of symptoms can fluctuate over time, and adjustments in treatment strategies may be necessary. Women with PMDD may need to continue treatment indefinitely, particularly if their symptoms are severe.
  3. Lifestyle Impact: The impact of PMDD on lifestyle can be substantial without treatment. However, with effective management, including dietary changes, regular physical activity, and stress-reducing practices, the adverse effects on daily life can be minimized.
  4. Psychological Health: PMDD can affect mental health significantly, but therapeutic interventions like cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be very effective in helping women manage both the emotional symptoms of PMDD and the psychological stress associated with chronic health issues.
  5. Education and Support: Understanding the condition and having a good support system in place can improve outcomes. Education about PMDD helps in recognizing symptoms early and seeking appropriate treatment promptly. Support groups and counseling can also provide necessary emotional support and coping strategies.
  6. Research Advances: Ongoing research into PMDD continues to improve our understanding of the disorder and leads to better treatments. Advances in genetics, hormonal therapies, and non-invasive interventions promise to improve the prognosis for those with PMDD in the future.

Overall, while PMDD is a chronic condition, it is also a manageable one. With proper treatment, support, and adjustments, individuals with PMDD can lead healthy, fulfilling lives. The key to a good prognosis often lies in early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment planning tailored to the individual’s specific needs.


Types of Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria

Here are the primary categories of PMDD symptoms:

Emotional Symptoms

These are often considered the most disruptive aspect of PMDD, a severe and debilitating form of PMS, and include:

  • Severe mood swings
  • Irritability or anger that might affect other people
  • Depressed mood, feelings of hopelessness, or self-deprecating thoughts
  • Anxiety, tension, and feelings of being ‘on edge’

Physical Symptoms

Physical manifestations of PMDD can significantly impair daily functioning:

  • Breast tenderness or swelling
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • A sensation of “bloating” or weight gain
  • Headaches

Behavioral Symptoms

Changes in behavior due to PMDD can impact personal and professional life:

  • Fatigue or lack of energy
  • Sleep disturbances (sleeping too much or too little)
  • Appetite changes or specific food cravings
  • Trouble concentrating or focusing on tasks

Cognitive Symptoms

Though often less discussed, cognitive symptoms can be profoundly affecting:

  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory lapses
  • Confusion and difficulty making decisions

Each woman with PMDD may experience a different set of symptoms from these categories, and the severity can vary from cycle to cycle. This variability sometimes leads to misunderstanding about the nature of the disorder and how it impacts the daily lives of those who suffer from it. Treatment and management strategies are usually tailored to address the most predominant and disruptive symptoms an individual experiences.


Effects of Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria

Emotional and Mental Health Effects of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

  • Severe Mood Swings and Irritability: These can strain personal relationships and lead to social withdrawal.
  • Depression and Anxiety: PMDD can induce feelings of sadness and hopelessness, increasing the risk of depression. Anxiety may also manifest as persistent worry and tension.
  • Suicidal Thoughts: In severe cases, the emotional turmoil caused by PMDD can lead to suicidal ideation, necessitating immediate medical attention.

Physical Health Effects

  • Pain and Discomfort: Joint, muscle pain, and headaches can be debilitating, affecting daily activities and physical function.
  • Fatigue: The extreme tiredness associated with PMDD can impair a person’s ability to perform usual activities, affecting work and personal life.
  • Sleep Disturbances: Problems with sleep, whether insomnia or hypersomnia, can lead to fatigue and exacerbate other symptoms.

Social and Interpersonal Effects

  • Relationship Challenges: The emotional volatility of PMDD can lead to conflicts with family, friends, and partners, impacting social relationships and potentially leading to isolation.
  • Workplace Impact: Fluctuations in mood and physical symptoms can affect productivity and may lead to absenteeism, affecting professional life and career progression.

Cognitive Effects

  • Impaired Concentration and Memory: Cognitive disruptions can affect job performance, academic achievement, and daily tasks, such as managing finances or maintaining a household.

Long-Term Quality of Life

  • Chronic Management Issues: Managing PMDD often requires long-term strategies, including ongoing medical treatments and lifestyle adjustments, which can impose an emotional and financial burden.
  • Impact on Mental Health Treatment: For those who have underlying mental health disorders, PMDD can complicate the diagnosis and treatment, as symptoms overlap and may exacerbate existing conditions.

Understanding the multifaceted impact of PMDD is crucial for those affected by the disorder as well as their support networks and healthcare providers. Effective management requires a holistic approach that addresses not just the physical symptoms but also the emotional, social, and psychological challenges associated with PMDD.


Risks of Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria

Emotional and Mental Health Risks

  • Increased Severity of Mood Disorders: Women with PMDD may experience exacerbated symptoms of existing mood disorders such as depression or anxiety, particularly in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle.
  • Suicidal Ideation: One of the most severe risks associated with PMDD is an increased likelihood of experiencing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, especially if the depressive symptoms are intense.

Physical Health Risks

  • Impact on Chronic Conditions: PMDD symptoms can worsen the management of other chronic health conditions, especially due to hormonal fluctuations that might affect the entire body system, such as diabetes or thyroid disorders.
  • Substance Use: In an attempt to manage symptoms, there is a risk that individuals with PMDD might turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms, including increased use of alcohol, nicotine, or other substances.

Social and Relationship Risks

  • Interpersonal Strain: The significant mood swings and irritability that accompany PMDD can strain relationships with family, friends, and partners. This can lead to misunderstandings, conflicts, and in some cases, long-term damage to important relationships.
  • Social Withdrawal: The severity of symptoms might cause individuals to withdraw socially, which can lead to isolation and exacerbate feelings of depression and anxiety.

Work and Academic Risks

  • Reduced Productivity: During symptomatic phases, cognitive difficulties such as trouble concentrating and memory issues can decrease productivity at work or in academic environments.
  • Absenteeism: Physical and emotional symptoms might lead to increased absenteeism, which can have long-term consequences on career advancement and educational success.

Overall Quality of Life

  • Life Disruption: The cyclical nature of PMDD means that symptoms can predictably disrupt all aspects of life every month, leading to a reduced overall quality of life.
  • Management Burden: The ongoing need to manage PMDD with medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes can be burdensome and stressful, impacting mental health and financial stability.

Given these risks, it’s important for those experiencing signs of PMDD to seek a comprehensive evaluation from a healthcare provider. Early diagnosis and effective management are crucial to mitigate these risks and improve quality of life.


Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Prevalence

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) affects approximately 3-8% of women in their reproductive years. It represents a small but significant portion of the population experiencing menstrual cycles, distinguishing itself by the severity and disabling nature of its symptoms compared to more common premenstrual syndrome (PMS).


How is Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Diagnosed?

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is diagnosed based on a detailed medical history and symptom tracking. The diagnostic criteria, as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), require the presence of at least five specific symptoms that recur in most menstrual cycles and cause significant distress or interference with work, school, social activities, or relationships. These symptoms include markedly depressed mood, anxiety, mood swings, and irritability, along with physical symptoms such as breast tenderness or bloating. Diagnosis often involves keeping a symptom diary for at least two menstrual cycles to clearly link symptoms with the menstrual cycle’s phases. This process helps to differentiate PMDD from other mood disorders.


Signs and Symptoms of Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria

Emotional Symptoms

  • Severe mood swings
  • Irritability or anger that may affect other people
  • Depression or feelings of hopelessness
  • Anxiety and tension
  • Sensitivity to rejection or interpersonal conflicts

Physical Symptoms

  • Breast tenderness or swelling
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Headaches
  • Bloating and weight gain
  • Sleep disturbances such as sleeping too much or too little

Behavioral Symptoms

  • Fatigue or a lack of energy
  • Changes in appetite, including overeating or specific food cravings
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Withdrawal from social activities

These symptoms are severe enough to disrupt daily functioning and significantly impair a woman’s quality of life, differentiating PMDD from the more commonly known premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Diagnosis involves tracking these symptoms over at least two menstrual cycles to establish a pattern directly related to the menstrual phases.


How Do You Help a Loved One with Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria?

Helping a loved one with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) involves understanding, support, and proactive assistance. Here are a few strategies:

  1. Educate Yourself: Learn about PMDD to understand the severity and impact of the symptoms your loved one experiences.
  2. Be Supportive: Offer emotional support and understanding. Listen to their experiences without judgment.
  3. Encourage Professional Help: Encourage them to seek professional help from a healthcare provider who specializes in PMDD.
  4. Help with Treatment Plans: Assist them in managing or following their treatment plans, whether it involves medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes.
  5. Plan for Tough Days: Be aware of when symptoms worsen and help minimize stressors during these times.
  6. Communicate Openly: Keep communication open and check in regularly on how they’re feeling, both emotionally and physically.

By taking these steps, you can provide meaningful support and make a significant difference in managing the challenges of PMDD together.


Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Treatment Options

Treatment for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) involves a multi-faceted approach tailored to the individual’s symptoms and their severity. Here are the main treatment options:


  • Antidepressants: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are often the first-line treatment, as they can help manage mood swings, irritability, and depression.
  • Hormonal Therapies: Oral contraceptives or hormonal regulators can help stabilize hormone fluctuations that trigger PMDD symptoms.
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonists: These can be used in severe cases to suppress ovulation and reduce symptoms.

Psychological Therapy

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): This helps patients identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with PMDD.
  • Counseling: Provides a space to discuss feelings and develop strategies for managing emotional stress.

Lifestyle Modifications

  • Diet and Nutrition: Eating a balanced diet and reducing caffeine, alcohol, and salt intake can help alleviate physical symptoms.
  • Exercise: Regular physical activity can improve mood and reduce symptoms like fatigue and sleep disturbances.
  • Stress Management: Techniques like yoga, meditation, and mindfulness can help reduce stress, which may exacerbate symptoms.

Alternative Treatments

  • Supplements: Calcium, magnesium, and Vitamin B6 have been found to help some women manage symptoms.
  • Herbal Remedies: Some women find relief with herbal supplements like chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus), though these should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Effective treatment often requires trying different approaches and working closely with healthcare providers to find the most suitable combination of therapies to manage the condition.


Inpatient and Outpatient Treatment for Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria

Treatment for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) typically involves outpatient care, but there are scenarios where inpatient treatment might be necessary, particularly when symptoms are severe. Here’s an overview of both treatment settings:

Outpatient Treatment

Outpatient treatment is the most common approach for managing PMDD and usually includes:

  • Medication Management: Patients typically work with their healthcare provider to manage and adjust medications such as antidepressants (SSRIs), hormonal contraceptives, or other hormonal therapies.
  • Psychotherapy: Techniques like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are used to help manage the psychological symptoms of PMDD. This can be conducted in individual or group settings.
  • Lifestyle Counseling: This includes guidance on diet, exercise, and stress management techniques to help mitigate symptoms.
  • Regular Follow-ups: Regular appointments with a healthcare provider are essential to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment plan and make adjustments as necessary.

Inpatient Treatment

Inpatient treatment might be required in cases where PMDD leads to severe depressive symptoms, significant risk of self-harm, or suicidal ideation, and when these cannot be safely managed in an outpatient setting. Inpatient care provides:

  • 24-hour Supervision: To ensure the safety and well-being of the patient, especially if there is a risk of harm to oneself.
  • Intensive Therapy: More frequent and intensive psychotherapy sessions can be conducted, including individual and group therapy.
  • Medication Stabilization: Inpatient settings allow for close monitoring and rapid adjustments of medications if needed to stabilize the patient’s condition.
  • Comprehensive Assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient’s mental health to address all contributing factors and plan for appropriate outpatient follow-up and care.

Inpatient treatment for PMDD is rare but may be necessary if the patient’s symptoms are particularly severe. Once stabilized, the transition to outpatient care for ongoing management is typical. The choice between inpatient and outpatient treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms, the patient’s personal and medical history, and the overall risk assessment by the healthcare provider.


Common Prescription Medications for Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria

For managing Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), several prescription medications are commonly used, targeting various symptoms, especially mood-related issues. Here are some of the most frequently prescribed types:

Antidepressants: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): The most commonly prescribed medications for PMDD, SSRIs help alleviate mood swings, depression, and irritability. Common SSRIs include:
    • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
    • Sertraline (Zoloft)
    • Paroxetine (Paxil)
    • Citalopram (Celexa)

SSRIs may be taken continuously or only in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, depending on the severity of symptoms and the patient’s response.

Hormonal Therapies

  • Oral Contraceptives: Birth control pills containing both estrogen and progestin can help stabilize hormonal fluctuations and reduce PMDD symptoms.
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonists: These drugs, such as Leuprolide (Lupron), are used in severe cases to suppress ovulation, effectively reducing hormonal swings that can trigger symptoms.


  • Spironolactone: Sometimes prescribed to help alleviate bloating and fluid retention associated with PMDD.


  • Benzodiazepines: Occasionally used for short-term management of severe anxiety symptoms associated with PMDD. However, due to their potential for dependency, they are generally used with caution and for brief periods.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • Ibuprofen or Naproxen: These can help relieve physical symptoms such as headache, joint, and muscle pain.

It’s important to note that the choice of medication, its dosage, and the regimen need to be carefully tailored to each individual by a healthcare provider. Monitoring and adjusting treatment based on the patient’s response and any side effects is crucial to achieving the best outcome while minimizing risks.


Does Insurance Cover Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Treatment?

Coverage for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) treatment by insurance varies widely depending on the insurance provider, the specific treatment plan, and the region or country’s healthcare laws. Here are some general guidelines on how insurance may cover PMDD treatment:

  1. Medication: Many insurance plans typically cover prescription medications, including SSRIs and hormonal treatments prescribed for PMDD, especially if these medications are also used for other conditions like depression or anxiety, which are commonly covered.
  2. Psychotherapy: Coverage for psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can vary. Many insurance plans do provide coverage for mental health services, but the extent of coverage, such as the number of sessions or choice of therapists, can differ.
  3. Specialist Consultations: Visits to specialists, such as gynecologists or psychiatrists, are often covered by insurance. However, copays and whether a referral is needed can depend on the type of insurance plan (e.g., HMO vs. PPO).
  4. Alternative Treatments: Treatments such as supplements or alternative therapies may not be covered as they are not universally recognized medical treatments.
  5. Inpatient or Outpatient Programs: If inpatient treatment is necessary, it’s often covered under mental health care provisions, though this may involve specific criteria that must be met for coverage.

To determine if your specific treatment plan for PMDD is covered, it’s essential to review your insurance policy details or speak directly with your insurance provider. Also, healthcare providers often know what treatments are generally covered and can assist in navigating these options to ensure maximum insurance benefit.


Common Insurance Plans Used for Addiction and Mental Health Treatment

Private Health Insurance

  • Employer-Sponsored Plans: Many people receive health insurance through their employer, which typically offers coverage for mental health and substance use disorder treatment under the parity laws that require mental health services to be covered at levels equivalent to medical and surgical services.
  • Individual Health Insurance: Purchased on health insurance marketplaces or directly from insurers, individual plans also follow the parity laws and provide coverage for mental health and addiction treatment.


  • Part A (Hospital Insurance): Covers inpatient hospital stays, care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care, and some home health care.
  • Part B (Medical Insurance): Covers outpatient care, doctor services, preventive services, and mental health services.
  • Part D (Prescription Drug Coverage): Covers the cost of prescription drugs, which can include medications for mental health or addiction treatment.


  • Medicaid provides health coverage for eligible low-income families and individuals. It covers a broad spectrum of mental health and addiction services, including inpatient and outpatient treatment, counseling, and medication. Coverage can vary by state since Medicaid is a joint federal and state program.

Military Insurance (TRICARE)

  • TRICARE provides comprehensive coverage to military personnel, retirees, and their dependents. This includes coverage for mental health care, such as inpatient and outpatient care, therapy, and medications.

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)

  • These require patients to work with a primary care physician and seek care from a network of approved providers. Mental health and addiction treatment services are typically included, but it often requires prior approval and referrals.

Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)

  • PPOs offer more flexibility in choosing healthcare providers and do not usually require referrals for specialists, including mental health and addiction services. They cover a larger portion of the cost if providers within the network are used.

Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs)

  • An EPO plan requires members to use a network of doctors and hospitals. Like PPOs, they don’t require referrals, but there is no coverage for out-of-network services, except in emergencies.

Each of these insurance plans has specific rules about coverage for mental health and addiction treatment, so it’s important for individuals to review their policy details or speak with their insurance provider to understand what treatments are covered, any associated costs like co-pays or deductibles, and any limitations or conditions on services.


Is Premenstrual Dysphoric Dysphoria Treatment Right for Me?

Determining whether treatment for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is right for you involves evaluating the severity of your symptoms and how much they impact your daily life. If you experience significant emotional distress, mood swings, physical symptoms like fatigue and pain, and these symptoms interfere with your work, relationships, or overall well-being, seeking treatment is likely a beneficial step. Consulting with a healthcare provider can help diagnose PMDD and discuss various treatment options, including medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes, to find a plan that suits your specific needs. Effective management can greatly improve your quality of life.



To effectively understand Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, one must appreciate the complexity of its risk factors and the severity of its impact on daily life. PMDD is not only about managing severe symptoms but also understanding the underlying abnormal reactions to normal hormone changes during the menstrual period. Treatments range from relaxation techniques to address increased sensitivity and muscle aches to medications that stabilize hormone levels and alleviate severe depression. For those diagnosed with this disorder, recognizing the interconnectedness of mental and physical health symptoms is vital. By educating ourselves and others about PMDD, we can improve the quality of life for people assigned female at birth who are navigating this challenging condition, ensuring they receive support and effective treatment from the onset of their premenstrual symptoms.


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If you or a loved one are struggling with mental health challenges or substance abuse, reach out to California Prime Recovery today. Our team of compassionate professionals is here to support your journey towards lasting well-being. Give us a call at 866-714-2619


The exact causes are not fully understood, but it is believed to involve genetic, hormonal, and neurotransmitter components, particularly sensitivity to normal hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle.
Symptoms include severe mood swings, depression, anxiety, irritability, physical symptoms like bloating and breast tenderness, and behavioral changes such as lack of interest in daily activities.
Treatments include antidepressants (especially SSRIs), hormonal therapies (such as oral contraceptives), lifestyle changes (like diet and exercise), and psychotherapy.
While PMS symptoms are more common and typically milder, PMDD causes extreme mood swings, depression, irritability, and tension that can severely impact quality of life.
Yes, regular exercise, a healthy diet, adequate sleep, stress reduction techniques, and avoiding substances that can exacerbate symptoms (like caffeine and alcohol) are recommended to help manage PMDD.

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